Isotopic distinctions of burial variety of, sex and age

Isotopic distinctions of burial variety of, sex and age

To analyze the relationship between your isotopic results additionally the public condition of your Imdang anybody, individuals regarding the Joyeung C district come right here getting discussion

Based on archaeological features and burial structures, the Joyeung district was divided into Joyeung C (I, II) and E (I, II, III). In this study, humans (n = 30) from Joyeung E were measured, but humans (n = 18) from Joyeung C were previously published 56 . According to the archaeological and isotope data, all 48 individuals were categorized into either elite (n = 12) or retainer (n = 33) groups. A simple t-test found that there is a significant difference in the ? 15 N values between the elites and retainers (? 15 N: t = 6.6, P < 0.0001). The mean ? 15 N value for the elites is 2.5‰ higher than the retainers (elite: 12.2 ± 1.3‰ > retainer: 9.7 ± 1.0‰). This likely indicates that the elites consumed more animal protein than their retainers. Furthermore, there is a significant difference in ? 13 C values between the elites and the retainers (? 13 C: t = ? 3.8, P < 0.0001) (Fig. 3). The mean ? 13 C value for the elites is 1.0‰ lower than those of the retainers (elite: ? 18.8 ± 0.8‰ < retainer: ? 17.8 ± 0.8‰). These results suggest that the elites consumed less C4 plants than their retainers. These isotopic data demnonstrate that there is a significant difference in diets according to the social class (elite vs. retainer), even though both were buried in similar wooden chamber tombs.

Matchmaking between the isotopic results and also the gender of the person, age range and you may burial products was indeed along with examined

Raincloud plots showing the stable carbon (A) and nitrogen (B) isotope values between elites and retainers from the Imdang burial mounds. There are significant differences in both ? 13 C (P < 0.0001) and ? 15 N (P < 0.0001) values between elites and retainers.

Among 31 burials, 24 get into the new twice wooden chamber tombs, which can be comprising a couple of compartments: one head rectangle (jukwak) additionally the most other rectangular additional (bukwak) chamber (Fig. 1). It is believed that area of the chamber is actually constructed getting elites, as the additional chamber was created having retainers. Isotopic difference in part of the (n = 28) and you may auxiliary chamber (n = 15) was basically checked-out. A beneficial t-sample receive no extreme variations in the fresh isotopic values of individuals involving the fundamental and reliable compartments throughout the Imdang piles (? thirteen C: xcheaters benzeri uygulamalar t = ? 0.88, P = 0.38; ? fifteen N: t = 1.33, P = 0.19). It appears that there’s no isotopic difference between area of the and you will auxiliary chambers, recommending one to sort of and you can shape of the fresh spaces is on the the amount of grave items, perhaps not on the social status.

Among the 48 individuals, 12 males and 9 females were identified based on sex. No statistically significant difference in the isotopic values between the males and females was found (? 13 C: t = ? 0.86, P = 0.40; ? 15 N: t = 1.8, P = 0.08). This indicates that there was no detectable difference in food consumption between the males and females. To examine the possibility of age-related isotopic differences, a total of 48 individuals were grouped into children (0–20 years) and adults (> 20 years) following the age–at-death determined by the YUM 40 . The ? 13 C values exhibit no significant difference between the children and adults (t = 1.04, P = 0.30). However, there is a statistically significant difference in ? 15 N values (t = ? 3.25, P < 0.002) between the children and the adults. The mean ? 15 N value for the adults is 1.3‰ higher than those of the children (adult: 10.7 ± 1.4‰ > child: 9.4 ± 0.9‰). This difference in ? 15 N values suggests that the consumption of animal proteins increased as individuals became older.